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     FOREVER JYOTISHMATI

CELASTRUS PANICULATA

 

Sanskrit

:

Agnibhasa, Agnidipta, Agnimasha, Alavana, Amruta, Avega, Dipta, Durjara, Durmada, Gatida, Ingudi, Jio, Joytishmati, Jyotishka, Jyotishlata, Jyotishmati, Jyotiskaphala, Jyotismati, Kakamardanika, Kakandaki, Kakandi, Kanguni, Kangunika, Katabhi, Katavira, Katumbhi, Kinshuka, Lagana, Lavana, Medhya, Nishphala, Paravatanghri, Paravatapadi, Pidya, Pinya, Pitataila, Putitaila, Sphutabandhani, Supingala, Sutaina, Suvarnalatika, Suvarnanakuli, Swarnalata, Tahnirusi, Tejasvini, Tejavati, Triparni, Vanhiruchi, Vega, Tishmati

English

:

Black-Oil tree, Staff tree

Botanical Name

:

 CELASTRUS PANICULATA

Family

:

CELASTRACEAE
 HINDI

:

Malkakni, Mal-kangni, Mal-kangni-ke-binj, Malakanguni, Malkamni, Malkangani, Malkangni, Malkungi, Malkunki, Malkagni, Sankhiran, Malkauni, Sandhran, Sankheran, Sankhiren, Mali, Kangni kavela, Jangli-mali, Kangni-kavela
 URDU

:

Roghan mal kangni, Malkangni
BENGALI

:

Kijri
 KANNADA : Gavanagonge, Kangli, Kangondi, Karegavane, Kariganne, Bhavanga beeja, Gangura hambu, Gavana gonge, Gonge balli, Gungange balli
 
 MALYALAM   Ceruppunna, Palulavam, Valulavam, Valuzhuva, Paluzhavam
MARATHI   Maalkangani, Maalkangoni, Pigavi, Kaakamardanika, Kakundalithida, Kangoni, Kamgoni, Malkangoni
ORIYA Penglotha
TAMIL   Adibaricham, Kagodagi, Kalambam, Kaligam, Kirumikkundram, Kungiligam, Kuvangundal, Malganguni, Atiparich-cham
TELGU   Bavanji, Bavunji, Erukata, Gundu-mida, Gundumeda, Mala-eri-kata, Malkanguni, Malkanguni-vittulu, Maneru, Mayalerukata
TIBETAN   Dzo ti sma ti
PART (S) USED SEEDS AND OIL
DOSE   Seeds 1 - 2 gms and oil 5 - 15 drops
FORMULATIONS (Yog)   Brihanmarichadya taila Chitrakadi taila Mahamarichadi taila
THERAPEUTIC USES   Analgesic, Increases mind power, Digests the mal and excretes them out, Micturitive
ANTI-DOTE (Nivaran Dravya) Cow milk and cow ghee and lavang oil
 

 

 



PHARMACOGNOSY
The capsular fruits are 1-1.3 cm in diameter, depressed, globose, trilobed, bright yellow, 1-6 seeded. Seeds are completely enclosed in an orange red aril. It has unpleasant odour and taste. The capsular pericarp is differentiated into epicarp, mesocarp and endocarp. Mesocarp has an outer yellowish parenchymatous and an inner whitish scelernchymatous region. Inner mesocarp consists of thick walled lignified stone cells and crystals of calcium oxalate.

DISTRIBUTION
Globally the species occurs in the tropical and subtropical regions of India, Myanmar (earlier Burma), China, Malesia, SriLanka and Phillipines and also in North America. Within India, it occurs in Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Goa, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Punjab and Himachal Pradesh. This species is globally distributed from South Asia to Australia. Within India, it is distributed almost all over India chiefly in the deciduous forests, up to an altitude of 1800 metres and also found in the Middle and South Andamans

AYURVEDIC PROPERTIES

GUNA (Quality)
RASA (Taste)
VIPAK (Metabolism)
VIRYA (Potency)
PRABHAV (Impact)
Tikshan
Katu, Tikt
Katu
Ushan
Medhya

Vegetative Characters :

Habit : Small tree, Shrubs or Climbers.

Leaves : Alternate or opposite, simple, stalked, not lobed or gland dotted.

Floral Characters :

Inflorescence: Mostly cymose or fasciculate.

Flowers : Often hermaphrodite, actinomorphic and polygynous.

Calyx : 4-5 lobed, imbricate, very rarely valvate.

Petals : 5, rarely 0, imbricate or rarely valvate.

Stamens : 4-5, inserted on or beneath the margin of the disc, alternate with the petals.

  

PANCABHAUTIC CONSTITUTION OF JYOTISMATI

 

RASA - According to Ayurvedic literature Jyotismati possess katu and Tikta vasa.

Rasa Mahabhuta Dominance

Katu Vayu + Agni

Tikta Vayu + Akas

GUNA Most of the authors have indicated Laghu Tiksna and Usna guna.

Guna Mahabhuta dominance.

Tiksna Agni

Laghu Agni, Vayu, Akas.

Usna Agni.

VIRYA- All the Acaryas have mentioned Usna virya which indicates

Agni Mahabhuta predominance.

VIPAKA - All the Acaryas have indicated its Vipaka as Katu which indicates Vayu and Agni Mahabhuta dominance. Hence from above tabulation it can be concluded that in Jyotismati Agni Mahabhuta takes major part in its formation. Vayu and Akas are complementary. Overall Jyotismati is Tejas drug.

CULTIVATION

Method of propagation : Jyotismati can be propagated through seed.

Soil : It can be grown in any type of soil, but it will require well drained soil.

Preparation of land : Soil should be prepared with repeated ploughed and mixing farmyard manual and after this furroee should be made at the distance of two feet.

Time sowing : 15th June or after 1st rain.

Method of sowing : Two seeds should be dropped at the distance of two feet on prepared furrow.

Seed rate : 4 Kg. per acere (1.61 Kg. / Hector)

Seed treatment : Seeds should be soaked in any growth regulators which improve the germination.

Irrigation : First will be given after sowing. Second will be given at 15 days interval. (Then there is no need to apply, if it rains)

Interculture operation : Interculture operation should be done with a viewto remove weeds.

Method of preparation of seed :Seeds should be picked when they will turn into  red colour and dry. They should be dried under sunlight for 7-10 days.

Yield : 500 kg. per acere per year.

Expected expenditure : 3000-4000 Rs.

Net income : 8500 Rs.

 

DISTRIBUTION AND HABITAT

Sub Himalayan tract from the Jhelum eastwards upto 2000 m. throughout the hilly parts of Madhya Bharat, Gujarat, Tamilnadu, ceylon, Burma, Malay, Penisula and Archipelago. Mostly found in hedges and along river and nala Banks.

HABIT AND GENERAL FEATURES

It is a large deciduous climber or staggler over trees, characterised by the numerous short  leafy shoots of the current year, rising each from a cup of swelling marking the bud scales. Covered with shiny grey skin studded with numerous pale lenticels and ending during panicles of small yellowish flowers.

EXTERNAL MORPHOLOGY :

Stems : Stems are upto 2-3 cm diam and 10 m high. Sometimes twining dextrously but more often rambling. Twigs fairly smooth, reddish brown. densely covered with small elongated whitish lenticels.

Bark : Bark of the old stem is pale brown, rough with shallow craks.

Leaf: Leaves simple alternate, oblong elliptic nearly circular or obovate, usually cuspidate, finely crenate (the teeth 1.50 cm aport about) from near the base to the apex, in length about 10.5 cm breadth 7.5 cm with five or six main pairs of nerves arching from the midrib.

Flowers Polygamous, pale yellow, green in terminal drooping penicles. Pedicles 1.5 cm with minute bract and bracteoles at the

Undehisced capsule : The undehisced dry capsule is ochreyellow in colour, stalked, globose, about 8 to 10 mm. in diameter. There are three locules, each carrying one or two seeds. Completely enclosed in a dry scaly, orange red aril. The aril grows to a small extent between the seeds but there are no outwardly distinguishable lines to mark each seed.

 

MICROSCOPIC STUDY OF LEAVES :

Surface Characters:

The upper surface of the leaf is smooth and glossy without any epidermal outgrowths or trichomes. However few non-glandular trichomes can be observed especially along the midrib region of the lower epidermis along with small papillae. The trichomes are mostly multicellalar and unisirilate with 2-7 cells in a series. However very few branched trichomes

mostly with dichotomous are also very rare in occurrence. The apical cells of the trichomes are mostly with rounded end.

Stomata:

The stomata are more abundant only in the lower epidermis of the leaves. They are very very rare in the upper epidermis. The stomata are mostly of ranuacalaceous type with four to five subsdiary cells. The subsdiary cells are comparatively smaller in size and are arranged around the stomata in a circular manner. The normal epidermal cell walls are mostly with 5 or 6 sided and are straight in outline. The opening of stomata or the stoma are slightly sunken and deeply seated. Rosette crystals of calcium oxalate are common in almost all the epidermal cells.

Upper epidermis:

Upper epidermis shows a thick cuticle over the epidermal cells. The epidermal cells are comparatively larger in size than the lower epidermal cells. Most of the epidermal cells are with 4 to 7 sides. They also contain rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. The crystals are usually attached at the corners of the wall joints. Stomata are very rare in the upper epidermis. However few stomata can be observed mostly along the midrib region of the lamina. The type of stomata are also ranunculaceos.  prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate are abundant along with sclerenchyma fibers of the veins.

Lower epidermis:

The lower epidermis shows non-glandular hairs of different size and shapes. They are of different size and types such as unicellular, malticellular, unisiriate and bent . The lower epidermis has a very thin cuticle. The epidermal cells are also very thin. The stomata which are of rananculaceous type with four to five subsidiary cells are mostly present in lower

epidermis prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate are also plenty along the veins, especially adjacent of sclernechyma fibers.  oil globules can also be seen in the epidermal cells.

 

DIAGNOSTIC CHARACTERS :

(1) The plant :

Celastrus paticulatus, Willd is a large decidous climber having numerous pale lenticles on the epidermis of its young branches. Leaves are alternate, ablong-eliptic and obovate with crenate margin. The flowers are polygamous, pale, yellowish green in terminal drooping penicles. Ovary is 3 celled, ovules 2 in each cell. The fruit is the size of a pea and on ripening

splits loculicidially into three roundish shortly pointed valves. The seeds are embedded in a red fleshy aril, which stains fingers yellowish orange and leaves a translucent orange mark on paper. The surface of the seed is generally smooth though some times very slight corrugations are seen. The seeds have an unpleasant odour and bitter taste.

(2) Leaf :

The surface of the leaf is smooth and glossy with few non-glandular trichomes on the lower side. The trichomes are mostly multicellular and unisiriate The stomata are more abundant only in the lower epidermis and are ranunculaceous in type with four to five subsdiary cells. They are very rare in upper epidermis. Prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate are plently along the veins (Ideoblast) in lower epidermis. Oil globules can also be seen in the epidermal cells as well as in the mesophyll. Presence of papillae on vein is an important diagnostic character of the leaf. Anatomically the leaf is dorsiventral in outline. T.S. of leaf through the midrib shows an arc-shaped vascular bundles with one or more accessory bundle inside or outside the main bundle. The palisade ration of the leaf is 3.5

(3) Seed :

The seed is endospermic having two coats; an outer testa and an inner tegmen. Fragments of light yellowish coloured parenchyma cells of fleshy arils also can be seen around the testa. Testa of seed with closely packed sclerides, presence of oily endosperm and a straight embryo with two thin cotyledons are the chief characteristic features of the seed.

 

STORAGE (Evam-Nihitam)

Jyotismati seeds may be kept clean and without invasion by pests, if the aril and the cleaned seeds are stored separately in arirtight, dry containers, with a few napthalene bulk; It is the aril that is devoured by ants and the mites, as became evident when the aril and seeds were kept exposed to invasion and each time, only the watch glass containing the aril became empty. When both seeds and aril were kept mixed the aril alone was cleared away, and the seeds left behind. Further, the mites were found only on the seeds which had their aril coat intact.

 

DURATION  OF  POTENCY  OF   SEED  &  OIL 

Jyotismati seeds are potent up to 2 years and the oil is useful up to long period.

 

PREPARATION OF JYOTISMATI OIL

Two types of oil are obtained from the Jyotismati seeds.

1) Brown or yellow oil (Malkanguni Oil)

2) Black oil (Oleam Nigrum)

1) Brown or Yellow oil : (Malkanguni Oil)

The seeds extracted by compression or on extraction with petroleumether yield a dark brown or yellow oil (52%) known as Celastrus oil or

MALKANGUNI OIL. The oil deposits a quantity of fat after it has been kept a short time. Its odour is pungent and acrid and treated with sulphuric acid it turns of a dark bistre colour. It is much admired as an external application along with a poultice of the crushed seeds.

2. Black Oil (Oleum Nigrum) :

The Jyotismati seeds submitted to destructive distillation yield the oil known as 'Oleum Nigrum'. This oil is brought forward by late Dr. Herklots as a soverign remedy in 'Beri-Beri', when administered in doses of 10-15 drops twice daily. The oil is empyreumatic and black in colour. According to Dr. Dymock the seeds are distilled along with benzoin, cloves, nutmegs and mace. This oil is manufactured in the northern circars, the best in Vizagapatam and Ellore, where it is sold in small blue or black bottles. It is a good diuretic, diaphoretic and nervine stimulant. Its action as a powerful stimulant is generally followed in a few hours by free diaphorisis not attended by exhaustion. It is specially efficacious in recent cases and where the nervous and paralytic symptoms predominate. The first good effect of this medicine is generally the increase in the quantity of urine and with this the dropsical effusion begins to disappear.

Difference between the two oils :

The compound and empyreumatic oil obtained by the destructive distillation of the seeds of Celastrus paniculata which is commonly known a 'Oleum Nigrum" or 'Black Oil' is quite different from the oil of the same seeds extracted by compression. The former is black and thick with a strong and peculiar aromatic smell; and the latter, yellow and of the consistence of oil. The black oil manufactured at vizagapatam and Masulipatam is the best.

Dose :

As a diuretic : 10-30 minims.

As a diaphoretic and nerine stimulant - 5 to 15 minims.

 

 


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