The capsular fruits are 1-1.3 cm in diameter, depressed, globose,
trilobed, bright yellow, 1-6 seeded. Seeds are completely
enclosed in an orange red aril. It has unpleasant odour and
taste. The capsular pericarp is differentiated into epicarp,
mesocarp and endocarp. Mesocarp has an outer yellowish
parenchymatous and an inner whitish scelernchymatous region.
Inner mesocarp consists of thick walled lignified stone cells
and crystals of calcium oxalate.
Globally the species occurs in the tropical and subtropical
regions of India, Myanmar (earlier Burma), China, Malesia,
SriLanka and Phillipines and also in North America. Within
India, it occurs in Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Goa, Maharashtra,
Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh,
Punjab and Himachal Pradesh. This species is globally
distributed from South Asia to Australia. Within India, it is
distributed almost all over India chiefly in the deciduous
forests, up to an altitude of 1800 metres and also found in the
Middle and South Andamans
• GUNA (Quality)
• RASA (Taste)
• VIPAK (Metabolism)
• VIRYA (Potency)
• PRABHAV (Impact)
• Katu, Tikt
Vegetative Characters :
: Small tree, Shrubs or Climbers.
: Alternate or opposite, simple, stalked, not lobed or gland
Floral Characters :
Mostly cymose or fasciculate.
: Often hermaphrodite, actinomorphic and polygynous.
: 4-5 lobed, imbricate, very rarely valvate.
: 5, rarely 0, imbricate or rarely valvate.
: 4-5, inserted on or beneath the margin of the disc, alternate
with the petals.
PANCABHAUTIC CONSTITUTION OF JYOTISMATI
- According to Ayurvedic literature Jyotismati possess katu and
Rasa Mahabhuta Dominance
Vayu + Agni
Vayu + Akas
Most of the authors have indicated Laghu Tiksna and Usna guna.
Guna Mahabhuta dominance.
Agni, Vayu, Akas.
All the Acaryas have mentioned Usna virya which indicates
Agni Mahabhuta predominance.
- All the Acaryas have indicated its Vipaka as Katu which
indicates Vayu and Agni Mahabhuta dominance. Hence from above
tabulation it can be concluded that in Jyotismati Agni Mahabhuta
takes major part in its formation. Vayu and Akas are
complementary. Overall Jyotismati is
Method of propagation
: Jyotismati can be propagated through seed.
: It can be grown in any type of soil, but it will require well
Preparation of land
: Soil should be prepared with repeated ploughed and mixing
farmyard manual and after this furroee should be made at the
distance of two feet.
June or after 1st
Method of sowing
: Two seeds should be dropped at the distance of two feet on
: 4 Kg. per acere (1.61 Kg. / Hector)
: Seeds should be soaked in any growth regulators which improve
: First will be given after sowing. Second will be given at 15
days interval. (Then there is no need to apply, if it rains)
: Interculture operation should be done with a viewto remove
Method of preparation of seed :Seeds
should be picked when they will turn into
colour and dry. They should be dried under sunlight for 7-10
: 500 kg. per acere per year.
: 3000-4000 Rs.
: 8500 Rs.
DISTRIBUTION AND HABITAT
Sub Himalayan tract from the Jhelum eastwards upto 2000 m.
throughout the hilly parts of Madhya Bharat, Gujarat, Tamilnadu,
ceylon, Burma, Malay, Penisula and Archipelago. Mostly found in
hedges and along river and nala Banks.
HABIT AND GENERAL FEATURES
It is a large deciduous climber or staggler over trees,
characterised by the numerous short leafy shoots of the
current year, rising each from a cup of swelling marking the bud
scales. Covered with shiny grey skin studded with numerous pale
lenticels and ending during panicles of small yellowish flowers.
EXTERNAL MORPHOLOGY :
Stems are upto 2-3 cm diam and 10 m high. Sometimes twining
dextrously but more often rambling. Twigs fairly smooth, reddish
brown. densely covered with small elongated whitish lenticels.
Bark of the old stem is pale brown, rough with shallow craks.
Leaves simple alternate, oblong elliptic nearly circular or
obovate, usually cuspidate, finely crenate (the teeth 1.50 cm
aport about) from near the base to the apex, in length about
10.5 cm breadth 7.5 cm with five or six main pairs of nerves
arching from the midrib.
Polygamous, pale yellow, green in terminal drooping penicles.
Pedicles 1.5 cm with minute bract and bracteoles at the
Undehisced capsule :
The undehisced dry capsule is ochreyellow in colour, stalked,
globose, about 8 to 10 mm. in diameter. There are three locules,
each carrying one or two seeds. Completely enclosed in a dry
scaly, orange red aril. The aril grows to a small extent between
the seeds but there are no outwardly distinguishable lines to
mark each seed.
MICROSCOPIC STUDY OF LEAVES :
The upper surface of the leaf is smooth and glossy without any
epidermal outgrowths or trichomes. However few non-glandular
trichomes can be observed especially along the midrib region of
the lower epidermis along with small papillae. The
are mostly multicellalar and unisirilate with 2-7 cells in a
series. However very few branched trichomes
mostly with dichotomous are also very rare in occurrence. The
apical cells of the trichomes are mostly with rounded end.
The stomata are more abundant only in the lower epidermis of the
leaves. They are very very rare in the upper epidermis. The
stomata are mostly of ranuacalaceous type with four to five
subsdiary cells. The subsdiary cells are comparatively smaller
in size and are arranged around the stomata in a circular
manner. The normal epidermal cell walls are mostly with 5 or 6
sided and are straight in outline. The opening of stomata or the
stoma are slightly sunken and deeply seated. Rosette crystals of
calcium oxalate are common in almost all the epidermal cells.
Upper epidermis shows a thick cuticle over the epidermal cells.
The epidermal cells are comparatively larger in size than the
lower epidermal cells. Most of the epidermal cells are with 4 to
7 sides. They also contain rosette crystals of calcium oxalate.
The crystals are usually attached at the corners of the wall
joints. Stomata are very rare in the upper epidermis. However
few stomata can be observed mostly along the midrib region of
the lamina. The type of stomata are also ranunculaceos.
prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate are abundant along with
sclerenchyma fibers of the veins.
The lower epidermis shows non-glandular hairs of different size
and shapes. They are of different size and types such as
unicellular, malticellular, unisiriate and bent . The lower
epidermis has a very thin cuticle. The epidermal cells are also
very thin. The stomata which are of rananculaceous type with
four to five subsidiary cells are mostly present in lower
epidermis prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate are also plenty
along the veins, especially adjacent of sclernechyma fibers.
oil globules can also be seen in the epidermal cells.
DIAGNOSTIC CHARACTERS :
(1) The plant :
Celastrus paticulatus, Willd is a large decidous climber having
numerous pale lenticles on the epidermis of its young branches.
Leaves are alternate, ablong-eliptic and obovate with crenate
margin. The flowers are polygamous, pale, yellowish green in
terminal drooping penicles. Ovary is 3 celled, ovules 2 in each
cell. The fruit is the size of a pea and on ripening
splits loculicidially into three roundish shortly pointed
valves. The seeds are embedded in a red fleshy aril, which
stains fingers yellowish orange and leaves a translucent orange
mark on paper. The surface of the seed is generally smooth
though some times very slight corrugations are seen. The seeds
have an unpleasant odour and bitter taste.
(2) Leaf :
The surface of the leaf is smooth and glossy with few
non-glandular trichomes on the lower side. The trichomes are
mostly multicellular and unisiriate The stomata are more
abundant only in the lower epidermis and are ranunculaceous in
type with four to five subsdiary cells. They are very rare in
upper epidermis. Prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate are
plently along the veins (Ideoblast) in lower epidermis. Oil
globules can also be seen in the epidermal cells as well as in
the mesophyll. Presence of papillae on vein is an important
diagnostic character of the leaf. Anatomically the leaf is
dorsiventral in outline. T.S. of leaf through the midrib shows
an arc-shaped vascular bundles with one or more accessory bundle
inside or outside the main bundle. The palisade ration of the
leaf is 3.5
(3) Seed :
The seed is endospermic having two coats; an outer testa and an
inner tegmen. Fragments of light yellowish coloured parenchyma
cells of fleshy arils also can be seen around the testa. Testa
of seed with closely packed sclerides, presence of oily
endosperm and a straight embryo with two thin
cotyledons are the chief characteristic features of the seed.
Jyotismati seeds may be kept clean and without invasion by
pests, if the aril and the cleaned seeds are stored separately
in arirtight, dry containers, with a few napthalene bulk; It is
the aril that is devoured by ants and the mites, as became
evident when the aril and seeds were kept exposed to invasion
and each time, only the watch glass containing the aril became
empty. When both seeds and aril were kept mixed the aril alone
was cleared away, and the seeds left behind. Further, the mites
were found only on the seeds which had their aril coat intact.
DURATION OF POTENCY OF SEED & OIL
Jyotismati seeds are potent up to 2 years and the oil is useful
up to long period.
PREPARATION OF JYOTISMATI OIL
Two types of oil are obtained from the Jyotismati seeds.
1) Brown or yellow oil (Malkanguni Oil)
2) Black oil (Oleam Nigrum)
1) Brown or Yellow oil :
The seeds extracted by compression or on extraction with
petroleumether yield a dark brown or yellow oil (52%) known as
Celastrus oil or
MALKANGUNI OIL. The oil deposits a quantity of fat after it has
been kept a short time. Its odour is pungent and acrid and
treated with sulphuric acid it turns of a dark bistre colour. It
is much admired as an external application along with a poultice
of the crushed seeds.
2. Black Oil
(Oleum Nigrum) :
The Jyotismati seeds submitted to destructive distillation yield
the oil known as
This oil is brought forward by late Dr. Herklots as a soverign
remedy in 'Beri-Beri', when administered in doses of 10-15 drops
twice daily. The oil is empyreumatic and black in colour.
According to Dr. Dymock the seeds are distilled along with
benzoin, cloves, nutmegs and mace. This oil is manufactured in
the northern circars, the best in Vizagapatam and Ellore, where
it is sold in small blue or black bottles. It is a good
diuretic, diaphoretic and nervine stimulant. Its action as a
powerful stimulant is generally followed in a few hours by free
diaphorisis not attended by exhaustion. It is specially
efficacious in recent cases and where the nervous and paralytic
symptoms predominate. The first good effect of this medicine is
generally the increase in the quantity of urine and with this
the dropsical effusion begins to disappear.
Difference between the two oils :
The compound and empyreumatic oil obtained by the destructive
distillation of the seeds of
which is commonly known a 'Oleum Nigrum" or 'Black Oil' is quite
different from the oil of the same seeds extracted by
compression. The former is black and thick with a strong and
peculiar aromatic smell; and the latter, yellow and of the
consistence of oil. The black oil manufactured at vizagapatam
and Masulipatam is the best.
As a diuretic : 10-30 minims.
As a diaphoretic and nerine stimulant - 5 to 15 minims.